In this assignment you will demonstrate your understanding of arrays, strings, functions, and the typedef facility. You must not make any use of malloc() (Chapter 10) or fifile operations (Chapter 11) in this project. You may use struct types (Chapter 8) if you wish, but are not required to.
We have all used web search tools. In response to a query, a search engine result page (SERP) is generated, containing (among many other elements) a list of URLs and snippets, with each snippet a short extract from the corresponding web page. A typical snippet contains around 20–30 words and is selected from the corresponding document to show the context in which query terms appear.1 For example, the query “web search algorithms” at a commercial web search service resulted (August 2022) in the following URLs (in blue), page titles (in italics), and snippets (with matching key words in bold) being offered:
How Search Engine Algorithms Work: Everything You Need to . . .
A search algorithm is a massive collection of other algorithms, each with its own purpose and task. Here’s how it all works.
What is a Search Engine Algorithm and Why is it Important?
A search engine algorithm is a complex algorithm used by search engines such as Google,Yahoo, and Bing to determine a web page’s. . .
Search Algorithm – Brafton
A search algorithm defifines the process and factors used by a search company to rank websites and organize their search ranking with an accurate response to. . .
How Search Engines Work: Crawling, Indexing, and Ranking
To determine relevance, search engines use algorithms, a process or formula . . . These algorithms have gone through many changes over the years. . .
Everything You Need to Know How Search Engine Algorithms . . .
The search engine algorithm tries to determine the nature of the information by analyzing the user’s search intent. The different. . .
Note how the fourth snippet is actually composed of two shorter segments, indicated by the “. . . ” in the middle of it. In the other four snippets the generator decided that a single contiguous segment of text was the best representation.
In this assignment you will build a program that reads paragraphs of text from stdin, builds a snippet for each paragraph according to certain rules, and then writes those snippets to stdout. You can either use Grok and the “terminal” facility that it provides, or develop your program outside of Grok. You should make use of functions in ctype.h and string.h. There is a handout linked from the LMS that provides guidance on the use of the Grok terminal.
Submission is via upload to the LMS. You cannot submit via Grok. Note that to be eligible for maximum marks in each stage you must exactly match the required output, including the formatting.
Stage 0 – Getting Started (maximum: 0/20 marks)
Copy the skeleton program ass1-skel.c and sample input fifiles from the Assignment 1 LMS page,and check that you can compile the program via either Grok or gcc. The skeleton program contains a simple main() function and a version of the get word() function (make careful note of how it is different), and when executed it simply copies the input to the output, one word per line, sometimes including trailing punctuation. Try compiling and running the skeleton program before you do anything else: The skeleton fifile also includes a very important authorship declaration. Substantial mark penalties apply if you do not include it in your submission, or if you do not sign it. This is an absolute requirement, and no excuses of any sort will be accepted.
Stage 1 – Reading Text (maximum: 12/20 marks)
Now alter function get word() so that it returns one of three status values: WORD FND if it identified a word; PARA END if instead of a word, a paragraph boundary was identifified; and EOF if the end of the input fifile was reached. Paragraphs are identifified in the input text by the combination “\n\n”, that is,two consecutive newline characters; or by reaching the end of fifile after one or more alphabetic words have been found since the last paragraph boundary A suitable #define appears in the skeleton code.
Once that is done, alter the processing loop in the main() so that it processes one paragraph at a time rather than one word at a time. To accomplish this step you will probably want to introduce a new function (perhaps called get paragraph()) that calls get word() repeatedly, to build up a paragraph of words in an array. You may assume that each paragraph has at most MAX PARA LEN words in it, each of at most MAX WORD LEN characters.
Output: The required output from this stage is a message for each paragraph that indicates the
paragraph number, and its length in words. See the LMS for examples of what is required.
Stage 2 – Matching Words and Printing Text (maximum: 16/20 marks)
The second task to write an output function that writes each paragraph’s words across the page, making sure that no line contains more than 72 characters. Each “word” that is output should be separated from the previous word in the same line by a single blank character. You’ll need to keep track of how many bytes have been written so far in each output line, and insert a newline character (instead of a blank) if the next word needing to be written won’t fifit within the current line.
Then alter your program so that any words in each paragraph that match any words supplied on the command-line (use argc and argv to access these) in a case-insensitive manner (look at the library function strncasecmp()) are “bolded” in the output text by putting “**” before and after them. Be sure to handle the punctuated words properly; the punctuation should be retained, but outside the “**”. For example, if “web” is supplied on the command-line as one of the query terms, then the word “Web;” in the input text must place “**Web**;” into the output text. (Yes, in a real program we’d generate HTML tags to make the selected words bold, but for simplicity we’ll stay with plain text.)
Output: Examples showing the required output are linked from the LMS page.
Stage 3 – Building Snippets (maximum: 20/20 marks)
Suppose that the score of a snippet relative to a set of query terms is calculated as:
– Add 15/(s + 10) points, where s is the start word of the snippet, counting from the fifirst word of the paragraph as word number zero; plus
– Add `/2 points for each different term that appears in the snippet, where ` is the length of that query term; plus
– Add 1.0 points for every other repetition of any query term that appears multiple times in the snippet; plus
– Add 0.6 points if the snippet starts with the word immediately following a punctuated word (taking word “−1” to also be punctuated); plus
– Add 0.3 points if the snippet ends with a punctuated word; and then
– Subtract 0.1 points for each word that the snippet exceeds MIN SNIPPET LEN in length.
Snippets cannot be longer than MAX SNIPPET LEN words. Similarly, snippets cannot be shorter than
MIN SNIPPET LEN words, except if the input paragraph is also shorter than MIN SNIPPET LEN words,in which case the whole input paragraph always becomes the snippet. If a snippet ends with a punctuated word that has a period “.” or a question mark “?” or a exclamation mark “!” attached, then no “. . . ” should be added. All other cases should have dots added immediately after the last word in the snippet, even if it takes the last output line past 72 characters.
Note that in the web search example on the fifirst page the query term “algorithm” also matches against the word “algorithms”, this is a process known as stemming. Whole books have been written about stemming rules for English, so that “compute”, “computer”, “computed”, “computation”,“computational”, “computing”, “computability”, “computably”, and so on, are all taken as being the same underlying word. Stemming is defifinitely outside the scope of this assignment, and we will just locate exact (except for case, and for trailing punctuation) matches against the query terms.
Extend your Stage 2 program so that the highest-scoring contiguous snippet is identifified for each
input paragraph. In the case of scores that are equal, select the snippet that starts closest to the beginning of the paragraph. And if there are still ties, print out the shortest legal maximum-score snippet starting at that point. An exhaustive search approach to fifinding the best snippet in each paragraph is perfectly acceptable, and there won’t be marks allocated to effificiency (unless your code is so bad it can’t run in a reasonable time on typical non-extreme paragraphs of text). You should use standard functions such as strncasecmp() to compare words – no need for KMP or BMH in this task.
Output: Your output for this stage should show the required maximal-score snippet for each input paragraph, with query terms highlighted. Lines should again be broken so that they are at most 72 characters long (by calling the same function, I hope). See the LMS for examples.
Stage 007 – Split Snippets (no extra marks)
Finished already? Suddenly bored?? Worried about where your next FUN might come from??? Go back and look at the fourth example snippet on the fifirst page.
If you want to further hone your programming skills, implement the following rules for split snippets: (1) fifind the best snippet of length between 10 and 15 words inclusive starting at a word in the fifirst half of the paragraph, suppose it runs from f1 to ` 1; then (2) fifind the best snippet of length 10 to 15 words between ` 1 + 1 and the end of the paragraph, suppose it runs from f2 to ` 2; then (3) if ` 1 + 1 = f2 join them back together and print a single snippet; or (4) if ` + 1 < f2 print the two parts with “. . . ” between them, including blanks on both sides, and with all of those fifive characters included when counting the length of the output lines. The score of the new snippet will be the sum of the two partial scores, even if they get joined back together and don’t have the “. . . ” in the middle.
Marking? This stage is purely recreational. Please don’t submit it for marking!
You will probably fifind it helpful to include a DEBUG mode in your program that prints out intermediate data and variable values. Use #if (DEBUG) and #endif around such blocks of code, and then #define DEBUG 1 or #define DEBUG 0 at the top. Turn off the debug mode when making your fifinal submission, but leave the debug code in place. The FAQ page has more information about this.
Boring But Important…
This project is worth 20% of your fifinal mark, and is due at 6:00pm on Friday 16 September. Submit your program for assessment via the link to GradeScope at the bottom of the LMS Assignment 1 page. Submissions cannot be made via Grok. Best advice? Start early and to fifinish early!!
Submissions that are made after the deadline will incur penalty marks at the rate of two marks per day or part day late. Students seeking extensions for medical or other “outside my control” reasons should email firstname.lastname@example.org as soon as possible after those circumstances arise. If you attend a GP or other health care service as a result of illness, be sure to obtain a letter from them that describes your illness and their recommendation for treatment. Suitable documentation should be attached to all extension requests.
Multiple submissions may be made; only the last submission that you make before the deadline will be marked. If you make any late submission at all, your on-time submissions will be ignored, and if you have not been granted an extension, the late penalty will be applied.
A rubric explaining the marking expectations is linked from the LMS, and you should study it carefully. Marks and feedback will be provided approximately two weeks after submissions close.
Academic Honesty: You may discuss your work during your workshop, and with others in the class,but what gets typed into your program must be individual work, not copied from anyone else. So, do not give hard copy or soft copy of your work to anyone else; do not have any “accidents” that allow others to access your work; and do not ask others to give you their programs “just so that I can take a look and get some ideas, I won’t copy, honest”. The best way to help your friends in this regard is to say a very fifirm “no” if they ask to see your program, pointing out that your “no”, and their acceptance of that decision, are the only way to preserve your friendship. See https://academicintegrity.
unimelb.edu.au for more information. Note also that solicitation of solutions via posts to online forums, whether or not there is payment involved, is also Academic Misconduct. In the past students have had their enrolment terminated for such behavior.
The skeleton program includes an Authorship Declaration that you must “sign” and include at the top of your submitted program. Marks will be deducted if you do not include the declaration, or do not sign it, or do not comply with its expectations. A sophisticated program that undertakes deep structural analysis of C code identifying regions of similarity will be run over all submissions.
Students whose programs are identifified as containing signifificant overlaps will have substantial mark penalties applied, or be referred to the Student Center for possible disciplinary action.
Nor should you post your code to any public location (github, codeshare.io, etc) while the assignment is active or prior to the release of the assignment marks.
And remember, Algorithms are Fun!
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