C语言代写 | OS | CS300 Project 3 Candy Kids

Project 3: Candy Kids 1

1. Overview

In this assignment, you will use the producer-consumer solution we discussed in class to manage access to a bounded buffer storing candy. One group of threads will model candy factories which generate candy one at a time and insert the candy into the bounded buffer. Another group of threads will model kids which eat candy one a time from the bounded buffer. Your program, called candykids, will accept three arguments:

./candykids <#factories> <#kids> <#seconds>

Example: ./candykids 3 1 10
# Factories: Number of candy-factory threads to spawn.
# Kids: Number of kid threads to spawn.
# Seconds: Number of seconds to allow the factory threads to run for.

2. Produce/Consumer Operation

Main

Your main() function will start and control the application. Its steps are as follows:

main() {
    // 1.  Extract arguments
    // 2.  Initialize modules
    // 3.  Launch candy-factory threads
    // 4.  Launch kid threads
    // 5.  Wait for requested time
    // 6.  Stop candy-factory threads
    // 7.  Wait until no more candy
    // 8.  Stop kid threads
    // 9.  Print statistics
    // 10. Cleanup any allocated memory
}
  1. Extract Arguments
    Process the arguments passed on the command line. All arguments must be greater than 0. If any argument is 0 or less, display an error and exit the program.
  2. Initialize Modules
    Do any module initialization. You will have at least two modules: bounded buffer, and statistics. If no initialization is required by your implementation, you may skip this step.
  3. Launch factory threads
    Spawn the requested number of candy-factory threads. To each thread, pass it its factory number: 0 to (number of factories – 1).
    – Hint: Store the thread IDs in an array because you’ll need to join on them later.
    – Hint: Don’t pass each thread a reference to the same variable because as you change the variable’s value for the next thread, there’s no guaranty the previous thread will have read the previous value yet. You can use an array to have a different variable for each thread.
  4. Launch kid threads
    Spawn the requested number of kid threads.
  5. Wait for requested time
    In a loop, call sleep(1). Loop as many times as the “# Seconds” command line argument. Print the number of seconds running each time, such as “Time 3s” after the 3rd sleep. This shows time ticking away as your program executes.
  6. Stop factory threads
    Indicate to the factory threads that they are to finish, and then call join for each factory thread. See section on candy-factory threads (below) for more.
  7. Wait until no more candy
    While there is still candy in the bounded buffer (check by calling a method in your bounded buffer module), print “Waiting for all candy to be consumed” and sleep for 1 second.
  8. Stop kid threads
    For each kid thread, cancel the thread and then join the thread. For example, if a thread ID is stored in daThreadID, you would run:

    ```cpp
    

    pthread_cancel(daThreadId); pthread_join(daThreadId, NULL); “`

  9. Print statistics
    Call the statistics module to display the statistics. See statistics section below.
  10. Cleanup any allocated memory
    Free any dynamically allocated memory. You may need to call cleanup functions in your statistics and bounded buffer modules if they need to free any memory.

File Structure

You must split your code up into modules by using multiple .h and .c files.
Suggestion is to have the following files:

  • candykids.c: Main application holding factory thread, kid thread, and main() function. Plus some other helper functions, and some #defined constants.
  • bbuff.h/.c: Bounded buffer module (see below).
  • stats.h/stats.c: Statistics module (see later section).
  • Makefile: Must compile all the .c files and link together the .o files.

Coding Suggestions

  • The factory creates candy and the kids consume it. The candy will be stored in a bounded buffer. To do this, you need a data type to represent the candy. The following struct is convenient:
    typedef struct  {
        int factory_number;
        double time_stamp_in_ms;
    } candy_t;
    
  • factory_number tracks which factory thread produced the candy item.
  • time_stamp_in_ms tracks when the item was created. You can get the current number of milliseconds using the following function. This code must be linked with the -lrt flag. Add it to CFLAGS in your Makefile.2
    double current_time_in_ms(void)
    {
        struct timespec now;
        clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, &now);
        return now.tv_sec * 1000.0 + now.tv_nsec/1000000.0;
    }
    

Bounded Buffer

Create a bounded buffer module which encapsulates access to the bounded buffer. Your bounded buffer must be implemented using the producer-consumer technique we discussed in clasa.
Suggested public interface (the complete bbuff.h file) is shown below. Note that it operates on void* pointers instead of directly with candy_tstructures. This is done so that the buffer need not know anything about the type of information it is storing. In this case, make the buffer array (declared in the .c file) of type void* such as: void* da_data[DA_SIZE];

#ifndef BBUFF_H
#define BBUFF_H

#define BUFFER_SIZE 10

void bbuff_init(void);
void bbuff_blocking_insert(void* item);
void* bbuff_blocking_extract(void);
_Bool bbuff_is_empty(void);

#endif

For example, an item can be inserted into the buffer with the following code which will dynamically allocate one candy element (pointer stored in candy), set the fields of the candy, and then call the bounded buffer function to insert it into the bounded buffer.

void foo() {
    candy_t *candy = malloc(...);
    candy->factory_number = ...;
    candy->time_stamp_in_ms = ...;
    bbuff_blocking_insert(candy);
}

The bbuff_init() function is used to initialize the bounded buffer module if anything needs to be initialized. Think of it like the constructor for your module: if this were object-oriented C++ then the constructor would do any needed initialization. But, in C there are no constructors, so init()functions are often used. If you do not need to initialize anything in your module, you can omit the bbuff_init() function entirely.

Candy-Factory Thread

Each candy-factory thread should:

  1. Loop until main() signals to exit (see below)
    1. Pick a number of seconds which it will (later) wait. Number randomly selected between 0 and 3 inclusive.
    2. Print a message such as: "\tFactory 0 ships candy & waits 2s"
    3. Dynamically allocate a new candy item and populate its fields.
    4. Add the candy item to the bounded buffer.
    5. Sleep for number of seconds identified in #1.
  2. When the thread finishes, print the message such as the following (for thread 0):
    "Candy-factory 0 done"

Thread Signaling

The thread will end when signaled to do so by main(). This is not using Linux signals but rather just a _Bool global variable which is set to true when it’s time to end the thread. For example, name it stop_thread and have it be false to start. Then have main(), when it wants to end the thread, set this variable to true. Have your thread continually check this _Bool variable (often called a flag) to see if it should end. Here is some pseudo-code that may help:

_Bool stop_thread = false;
void* dathread_function(void* arg) {
    while (!stop_thread) {
        // Do the work of the thread
    }
    printf("Done!");
}

void main() {
    // Spawn thread
    pthread_id daThreadId;
    pthread_create(&daThreadId, ...)

    // Wait
    sleep(...)

    // Tell thread to stop itself, and then wait until it's done.
    stop_thread = true;
    pthread_join(daThreadID, NULL)
}

Kid Thread

Each kid thread should do the following:

  1. Loop forever
  2. Extract a candy item from the bounded buffer.
    • This will block until there is a candy item to extract.
  3. Process the item. Initially you may just want to printf() it to the screen; in the next section, you must add a statistics module that will track what candies have been eaten.
  4. Sleep for either 0 or 1 seconds (randomly selected). The kid threads are canceled from main() using pthread_cancel(). When this occurs, it is likely that the kid thread will be waiting on the semaphore in the bounded buffer. This should not cause problems.

3. Statistics

Create a statistics module tracking:

  1. Count the number of candies each factory creates. Called from the candy-factory thread.
  2. Count the number of candies that were consumed from each factory.
  3. For each factory, the min, max, and average delays for how long it took from the moment the candy was produced (dynamically allocated) until consumed (eaten by the kid). This will be done by the factory thread calling the stats code when a candy is created, and the kid thread calling the stats code when an item is consumed. Suggested .h file (stats.h):
#ifndef STATS_H
#define STATS_H

void stats_init(int num_producers);
void stats_cleanup(void);
void stats_record_produced(int factory_number);
void stats_record_consumed(int factory_number, double delay_in_ms);
void stats_display(void);

#endif

Internally in stats.c, you will likely need to track a number of values for each candy-factory. It is suggested you create a struct with all required fields, and then build an array of such structs (one element for each candy-factory). The stats_init() function can initialize your data storage and get it ready to process produced and consumed events (via the respective functions). The stats_cleanup() function is used to free any dynamically allocated memory. This function should be called just before main() terminates.

Displaying Stats Summary

When the program ends, you must display a table summarizing the statistics gathered by the program. For example, it should resemble quite closely:

Statistics:
  Factory#   #Made  #Eaten  Min Delay[ms]  Avg Delay[ms]  Max Delay[ms]
         0       5       5        0.60498     2602.81274     5004.28369
         1       5       5        0.40454     2202.97290     5005.06494
         2       7       7        0.60107     2287.86067     4004.16162
         3       8       8     1001.12012     2377.36115     5004.13159
         4       5       5        0.40186     2202.63008     5005.38330
         5       4       4     1003.22095     2503.94049     4006.16309
         6       5       5     1003.24487     2603.35894     4005.19873
         7       6       6     3002.30640     3836.61743     4005.16089
         8       4       4     3001.74048     3753.03259     5004.31177
         9       4       4     3002.76660     4253.44440     5005.13550
  • Factory #: Candy factory number. In this example, there were 10 factories.
  • # Made: The number of candies that each factory reported making (as per the call from the candy-factory thread).
  • # Eaten: The number of candies which kids consumed (as per the call from the kid threads).
  • Min Delay[ms]: Minimum time between when a candy was created and consumed over all candies created by this factory. Measured in milliseconds.
  • Avg Delay[ms]: Average delay between this factory’s candy being created and consumed.
  • Max Delay[ms]: Maximum delay between this factory’s candy being created and consumed.
Requirements:
  • The table must be nicely formatted (as above).
    • Hint: For the title row, use the following idea:
      printf("%8s%10s%10s\n", "First", "Second", "Third");
      
    • Hint: For the data rows:
      printf("%8d%10.5f%10.5f\n", 1, 2.123456789, 3.14157932523);
      
  • If the #Made and #Eaten columns don’t match, print an error: “ERROR: Mismatch between number made and eaten.”

4. Testing

valgrind will be used to check for memory leaks. Don’t worry if valgrind reports “still accessible” memory which was allocated from any function called from pthread_exit(); you may get a few such warnings. But all memory that you allocate must be freed and not be”still accessible”.You can run valgrind with the following command:

valgrind --leak-check=full --show-leak-kinds=all --num-callers=20 ./candykids 8 1 1

See here for some sample outputs.

5. Deliverables

Submit an archive (.tar.gz) to CourSys of your code and Makefile. We will build your code using your Makefile, and then run it using a command like: ./candykids 2 2 10
Please remember that all submissions will automatically be compared for unexplainable similarities.


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