1 (a) Describe the difference between a distributed and a non-distributed computer system. 
(b) Describe a real world example of process replication in a distributed system. What are the
benefits of using process replication in this context? 
(c) A timing failure is a particular type of failure which can happen in a distributed system. Provide a
real world example of such a failure and in doing so explain the consequences of such a failure.
(d) Within the context of a client-server architecture, describe two benefits of having a thin client. 
2 (a) Provide an example of a distributed system which uses a client-server architecture. 
(b) Provide an example of a distributed system which uses a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. 
(c) Describe one benefit of using threads and one benefit of using processes in a distributed system.
(d) Explain one benefit and one challenge to using code migration in a distributed system. 
3 (a) What are some of the potential disadvantages of using cloud computing? 
(b) Explain how virtualization can be used to help migrate code in heterogeneous systems. 
(c) Provide a real-world example of a transient communication service. 
(d) RPC (Remote Procedure Call) provides access and location transparency. Justify this statement.
4 (a) Assume a server has a procedure which a client wishes to call but RPC cannot be used for some
reason. Describe an alternative solution the client could use to call the procedure in question. 
(b) Describe a useful benefit of using queues as the data structure to store messages in MOM
(Message Oriented Middleware). 
(c) Describe one potential problem which may occur when using the token-ring algorithm to provide
mutual exclusion access to a shared resource. 
(d) Describe an example where it is useful to know the geographical locations of the computers in a
distributed system. 
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